The research programme of the DTU REMS includes four distinct, but closely connected research lines:

Enforcement weaknesses often characterize multi-level regulatory systems. Are enforcement weaknesses inherent to multi-level regulatory systems as the latter typically require an intervention of various authorities at different policy levels, or are they due to an omission of the legislator when shaping concrete enforcement mechanisms, or are they rather the consequence of a (more or less) deliberate decision of the actors involved when putting those enforcement mechanisms into practice?

Proliferation of enforcers that multi-level structure of regulatory systems create. In many policy areas enforcement is taken up by both public actors and private actors at the national, European and/or international level. This proliferation raises important concerns about the interaction, integration and coordination of those different enforcers, and, more generally, the relation between various enforcement levels. How do they interact in theory and in practice, what are the main obstacles, and how could they cooperate more effectively? How much margin of appreciation can (or should) remain with Member States’ authorities, while nevertheless ensuring the effective implementation of EU law?

Standards of protection and the need to ensure effective remedies in a complex regulatory environment. How can (and should) European and national authorities ensure the protection of fundamental rights of individuals and businesses when enforcing multi-level regulatory frameworks and which strategic role do they play in that respect? How should effective remedies for individuals and businesses be constructed in multi-level regulatory systems?

Challenges that digitalisation creates for enforcement in a multi-level regulatory context, particularly addressing the question how regulations for digitalised economic activities can be enforced in a globalised economy.