Micro‐sized thin‐film solar cells via area‐selective electrochemical deposition for concentrator photovoltaics application. Daniel Siopa, Khalil El Hajraoui, Sara Tombolato, Finn Babbe, Alberto Lomuscio, Max H. Wolter, Pedro Anacleto, Kamal Abderrafi, Francis L. Deepak, Sascha Sadewasser & Phillip J. Dale. Scientific Reports (2020) 10:14763 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-71717-0

Chemical instability at chalcogenide surfaces impacts chalcopyrite devices well beyond the surface. Diego Colombara, Hossam Elanzeery, Nicoleta Nicoara, Deepanjan Sharma, Marcel Claro, Torsten Schwarz, Anna Koprek, Max Hilaire Wolter, Michele Melchiorre, Mohit Sood, Nathalie Valle, Oleksandr Bondarchuk, Finn Babbe, Conrad Spindler, Oana Cojocaru-Miredin, Dierk Raabe, Phillip J. Dale, Sascha Sadewasser & Susanne Siebentritt. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 2020, 11:3634 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-17434-8

Thin-film (Sb,Bi)2Se3 Semiconducting Layers with Tunable Band Gaps Below 1 eV for Photovoltaic Applications. Thomas Paul Weiss, Panagiota Arnou, Michele Melchiorre , Mael Guennou, Daniel Siopa, Christian Pauly, Inmaculada Peral Alonso, Philip James Dale, and Susanne Siebentritt. Phys. Rev. Applied 14, 024014 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.14.024014

Thin-film micro-concentrator solar cells. Marina Alves, Ana Pérez-Rodríguez, Phillip J Dale, César Domínguez and Sascha Sadewasser. J. Phys.: Energy2 (2020) 012001

Solution-based synthesis of kesterite thin film semiconductors. T Todorov, HWHillhouse, S Aazou, Z Sekkat ,OVigil-Galán, SDDeshmukh , RAgrawal , S Bourdais, MValdés, P Arnou ,DB Mitzi and P J Dale. J. Phys.: Energy 2 (2020) 012003

Continuous-wave laser annealing of metallic layers for CuInSe 2 solar cell applications: effect of preheating treatment on grain growth. Panagiota Arnou, Alberto LOMUSCIO, Thomas P. Weiss, Daniel Siopa, Sergio Giraldo, Edgardo Saucedo, Michael A. Scarpulla and Phillip J. Dale. The Royal Society of Chemistry RSC Adv., 2020, 10, 584–594

Atmospheric-Pressure Synthesis of Atomically Smooth, Conformal, and Ultrathin Low‑k Polymer Insulating Layers by Plasma-Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition. Dominique Abessolo Ondo, François Loyer, Florian Werner, Renaud Leturcq, Phillip J. Dale, and Nicolas D. Boscher. ACS Appl. Polym. Mater. 2019, 1, 3304−3312


Area-selective electrodeposition of micro islands for CuInSe 2-based photovoltaics. David Correia, Daniel Siopa, Diego Colombara, Sara Tombolato, Pedro M.P. Salomé, Kamal Abderrafi, Pedro Anacleto, Phillip J. Dale, Sascha Sadewasser. Results in Physics 12 (2019) 2136–2140

Cu2SnS3 based thin film solar cells from chemical spray pyrolysis. Mohamed H. Sayeda, Erika V.C. Robert, Phillip J. Dale, Levent Gütay. (2019) Thin Solid Films 669 (2019) 436–439. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2018.11.002


Locally-confined electrodeposition of Cu(In,Ga)Se2micro islands for micro-concentrator solar cells. David Correia, Daniel Siopa, Pedro M.P. Salome, Sara Tombolato, Kamal Abderrafi, Finn Babbe, Diego Colombara, Pedro Anacleto, Phillip J. Dale, Sascha Sadewasser. 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC). DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547833. (conference proceedings)

Synthesis of K2Se solar cell dopant in liquid NH3 by solvated electron transfer to elemental selenium. D. Colombara, A.-M. Gonçalves, A. Etcheberry. (2018) Electrochemistry Communications 93 (2018) 44–48

Sodium enhances indium-gallium interdiffusion in copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic absorbers. Diego Colombara, Florian Werner, Torsten Schwarz, Ingrid Cañero Infante, Yves Fleming, Nathalie Valle, Conrad Spindler, Erica Vacchieri, Germain Rey, Mael Guennou, Muriel Bouttemy, Alba Garzón Manjón, Inmaculada Peral Alonso, Michele Melchiorre, Brahime El Adib, Baptiste Gault, Dierk Raabe, Phillip J. Dale & Susanne Siebentritt. (2018) 9:826 DOI: 0.1038/s41467-018-03115-0. Nature Communication


Electrodeposition of germanium-containing precursors for Cu2(Sn,Ge)S3 thin film solar cells. João C. Malaquias, Minxian Wu, Jiajia Lina, Erika V.C. Robert, Jeroen Sniekers, Koen Binnemans, Phillip J. Dale, Jan Fransaer. Electrochimica Acta 251 (2017) 651–659

Nanometre-scale optical property fluctuations in Cu⁠2ZnSnS⁠4 revealed by low temperature cathodoluminescence. B.G. Mendis, A.A. Taylor, M. Guennou, D.M. Berg, M. Arasimowicz, S. Ahmed, H. Deligianni, P.J. Dale. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells (2017)

Silver Doped Cu2SnS3 Absorber Layers for Solar Cells Application. J. de Wild, F. Babbe, E. C. Robert, A. Redinger and P.J. Dale IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics (2017)

Valence band splitting in Cu2(Sn,Ge,Si)S3: effect on optical absorption spectra. Jessica de Wild, Efterpi Kalesaki, Ludger Wirtz, Phillip J. Dale. Physica Status Solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters (2017). DOI 10.1002/pssr.201600410

High-speed Electrodeposition of Copper-Tin-Zinc Stacks from Liquid Metal Salts for Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells. Marc Steichen, João C. Malaquias, Monika Arasimowicz, Rabie Djemour Neil R. Brooks, Luc Van Meervelt, Jan Fransaer, Koen Binnemans, and Phillip J. Dale. Chem Comm. (2017). DOI: 10.1039/C6CC09225J

Optoelectronic and Spectroscopic Characterization of Vapour-Transport Grown Cu2ZnSnS4 Single Crystals. Tat Ming Ng, Mark T. Weller, Gabriela P. Kissling, Laurence M. Peter, Phillip Dale, Finn Babbe, Jessica de Wild, Bernard Wenger, Henry J. Snaith, David Lane. J. Mater. Chem. A. (2017). DOI: 10.1039/C6TA09817G


Electrodeposition and selenization of brass/tin/germanium multilayers for Cu2 Zn(Sn1-x Gex )Se4 thin film photovoltaic devices. Kwinten Clauwaert, Maaike Goossens, Jessica De Wild, Diego Colombara, Phillip J. Dale, Koen Binnemans, Edward Matthijs, Jan Fransaer. Electrochimica Acta 198 (2016) 104–114. DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2016.03.048

Understanding quaternary compound Cu2ZnSnSe4 synthesis by microscopic scale analyses at an identical location. A. Crossay, D. Colombara, M. Melchiorre, M. Guennou, B. G. Mendisc and P. J. Dale. (2016) J. Mater. Chem. C

Laser Annealing of Electrodeposited CuInSe2 Semiconductor Precursors: Experiment and Modeling. Helen J Meadows, Sudhajit Misra, Brian J. Simonds, Masato Kurihara, Thomas Schuler, Vicente Reis-Adonis, Ashish Bhatia , M. A. Scarpulla and Phillip J Dale. J. Mater. Chem. C, (2016). DOI: 10.1039/C6TC03623F

Optical methodology for process monitoring of chalcopyrite photovoltaic technologies: Application to low cost Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 electrodeposition based processes. Florian Oliva, Steffen Kretzschmar, Diego Colombara, Sara Tombolato, Carmen Maria Ruiz, Alex Redinger, Edgardo Saucedo, Cédric Broussillou, Thomas Goislard, Monsabert, Thomas Unold, Philip J. Dale, Victor Izquierdo-Roca, Alejandro Pérez-Rodríguez. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells. (2016)

Secondary phase formation during monoclinic Cu2SnS3 growth for solar cell application. Jessica deWild, ErikaV.C.Robert, BrahimeElAdib, DanielAbou-Ras, PhillipJ.Dale. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells. 157 (2016)259–265

Photoelectrochemical Screening of Solar Cell Absorber Layers: Electron Transfer Kinetics and Surface Stabilization. Diego Colombara, Phillip J. Dale, Gabriela P. Kissling, Laurence M. Peter, and Sara Tombolato. (2016) Journal of Physical Chemistry C

Chemical stability of the Cu2SnS3/Mo interface. IEEE, PVSEC - from 4-6-2016 to 10-6-2016.

Crystallographic and optoelectronic properties of the novel thin film absorber Cu2GeS3. E.V.C. Robert, J. de Wild, D. Colombara, and P. J. Dale. SPIE Optics + Photonics for Sustainable Energy. (2016)

Reaction chemistry of group IV containing copper chalcogenide semiconductors Cu2MX3 and X=S,Se). Erika V.C. Robert, Jessica de Wild, and Phillip J. Dale . Journal of Alloys and Compounds (2016).


13.3 % efficient solution deposited Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells processed with different sodium salt sources. Ulrich Berner, Diego Colombara, Jessica de Wild, Erika V.C. Robert, Martin Schütze, Frank Hergert, Nathalie Valle, Markus Widenmeyer and Phillip J. Dale. (2015) PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS: RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS. DOI: 10.1002/pip.2721

A new phase in the Cu–Sn–Zn–S photovoltaic system. F. Boero, S. Delsante, D. Colombara, G. Borzone. Materials Letters 145 (2015) 145–149

Controlled bandgap CuIn1 − xGax(S0.1Se0.9)2 (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.72) solar cells from electrodeposited precursors. João C. Malaquias, Dominik M. Berg, Jan Sendler, Marc Steichen, Nathalie Valle, Phillip J. Dale. Thin Solid Films, vol 582, 2-6 (2015)

Cu2ZnSnSe4 device obtained by formate chemistry for metallic precursor layer fabrication. Sara Tombolato, Ulrich Berner, Diego Colombara, Daniel Chrastina, Markus Widenmeyer, Simona O. Binetti, Phillip J. Dale. Solar Energy 116 (2015) 287–292.

One-step Electrodeposition of Metal Precursors from a Deep Eutectic Solvent for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells. João C. Malaquias, Marc Steichen, Phillip J. Dale. Electrochimica Acta 151 (2015) 150–156


Composition dependent characterization of copper indium diselenide thin film solar cells synthesized from electrodeposited binary selenide precursor stacks. Johannes Fischer, Jes K. Larsen, Jerome Guillot, Yasuhiro Aida, Tobias Eisenbarth, David Regesch, Valerie Depredurand, Nicole Fevre, Susanne Siebentritt, Phillip J. Dale. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 126C (2014), pp 88-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2014.03.045

Semiconductors for Photovoltaic Devices: Electrochemical Approaches. P. J. Dale, J. Malaquias, M. Steichen. ECS Trans. 2014 volume 58, issue 18, 1-12.doi: 10.1149/05818.0001ecst

Single Second Laser Annealed CuInSe2 Semiconductors from Electrodeposited Precursors as Absorber Layers for Solar Cells. Authors: Meadows, Helene; Bhatia, Ashish; Depredurand, Valérie; Guillot, Jérôme; Regesch, David; Malyeyev, Artem; Colombara, Diego; Scarpulla, Mike; Siebentritt, Susanne; Dale, Phillip. J. Phys. Chem. C, 2014, 118 (3), pp 1451–1460. DOI: 10.1021/jp409804s

Tuning the Gallium Content of Metal Precursors for Cu(In,Ga)Se2Thin Film Solar Cells by Electrodeposition from a Deep Eutectic Solvent. Malaquias, João; Regesch, David; Dale, Phillip; Steichen, Marc. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014,16, 2561-2567. DOI: 10.1039/C3CP54509A

Quantification of surface ZnSe in Cu2ZnSnSe4-based solar cells by analysis of the spectral response. Diego Colombara; Erika V Robert; Alexandre Crossay; Aidan Taylor; Mael Guennou; Monika Arasimowicz; João Malaquias; Rabie Djemour; Phillip J Dale. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells Volume 123, April 2014, Pages 220-227

Solution-based processing of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers for 11% efficiency solar cells via a metallic intermediate. Ulrich Berner, and Markus Widenmeyer. Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. (2014). DOI: 10.1002/pip.2546.

Homoleptic and heteroleptic N-alkylimidazole zinc(II)-containing ionic liquids for high current density electrodeposition. Marc Steichen, Neil R. Brooks, Luc Van Meervelt, Jan Fransaerc and Koen Binnemans. Dalton Trans., 2014, 43, 12239, DOI: 10.1039/c4dt00182f

Book Chapter: Thin film PV based on earth-abundant materials. Diego Colombara, Phillip Dale, Laurence Peter, Jonathan Scragg, Susanne Siebentritt Book title: Advanced Concepts in Photovoltaics. Editors: Arthur J. Nozik, Matthew C. Beard, and Gavin Conibeer. ISBN: 978-1-84973-591-9. Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

Electrochemical deposition as a unique solution processing method for insoluble organic optoelectronic materials. Emily Allwright, Dominik M. Berg, Rabie Djemour, Marc Steichen, Phillip J. Dale and Neil Robertson. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, DOI: 10.1039/c4tc01134a (2014).

Discrimination and detection limits of secondary phases in Cu2ZnSnS4 using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Dominik M. Berg, Monika Arasimowicz, Rabie Djemour, Levent Gütay, Susanne Siebentritt, Susan Schorr, Xavier Fontané, Victor Izquierdo-Roca, Alejandro Pérez-Rodriguez, Phillip J. Dale. Thin Solid Films 569 (2014) 113–123.


Direct synthesis of single-phase p-type SnS by electrodeposition from a dicyanamide ionic liquid at high temperature for thin film solar cells. Steichen, M., Djemour, R., Gütay, L., Guillot, J., Siebentritt, S., Dale, P.J. (2013) Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117 (9), pp. 4383-4393.

Effects of pulsed laser annealing on deep level defects in electrochemically-deposited and furnace annealed CuInSe2 thin films. Bhatia, A., Meadows, H., Hlaing Oo, W.M., Dale, P.J., Scarpulla, M.A. (2013) Thin Solid Films, 531, pp. 566-571.

HCl and B Electrodeposition of Cu-In alloys from a choline chloride based deep eutectic solvent for photovoltaic applications. Malaquias, J.C., Steichen, M., Thomassey, M., Dale, P.J. (2013) Electrochimica Acta, 103, pp. 15-22. Article in Press.

r2-MeOH etching of Cu2ZnSnSe4 polycrystalline absorbers. Mousel, M., Redinger, A., Djemour, R., Arasimowicz, M., Valle, N., Dale, P., Siebentritt, S. (2013) Thin Solid Films, Article in Press.


Effects of annealing in sulfur vapor on electrodeposited CuInSe2 films, Bhatia, A., Karmarkar, M.A., Meadows, H., Hymas, M.C., Smith, E.M., Dale, P.J., Scarpulla, M.A., Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference , art. no. 6317742 , pp. 879-883

Raman analysis of monoclinic Cu2SnS3 thin films, Berg, D. M.; Djemour, R.; Gutay, L.; et al., Applied Physics Letters Volume: 100 Issue: 19, DOI: 192103 10.1063/1.4712623

Thermodynamic Aspects of the Synthesis of Thin-Film Materials for Solar Cells, Scragg, Jonathan J.; Dale, Phillip J.; Colombara, Diego; et al., Chemphyschem Volume: 13 Issue: 12 Pages: 3035-3046, DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200067

Thin film solar cells based on the ternary compound Cu2SnS3, Berg, Dominik M.; Djemour, Rabie; Guetay, Levent; et al., Thin Solid Films Volume: 520 Issue: 19 Pages: 6291-6294, DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.05.085

Pulsed and continuous wave solid phase laser annealing of electrodeposited CuInSe2 thin films. Bhatia, A., Meadows, H., Crossay, A., Dale, P.J., Scarpulla, M.A. (2012) Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 8473, art. no. 84730F.


Pressure dependent synthesis of CuInSe 2 thin film solar cells from electrodeposited binary selenide stacks, Fischer, J., Larsen, J., Lambrechts, J.-C., Siebentritt, S., Dale, P.J., Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference , art. no. 6185968 , pp. 000359-000363

Pulsed laser processing of electrodeposited CuInSe 2 photovoltaic absorber thin films, Bhatia, A., Meadows, H., Oo, W.M.H., Dale, P.J., Scarpulla, M.A., Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference , art. no. 6185931 , pp. 000329-000332

Route toward high-efficiency single-phase cu 2 znsn(s,se) 4 thin-film solar cells: Model experiments and literature review. Redinger, A., Berg, D.M., Dale, P.J., Djemour, R., Gütay, L., Eisenbarth, T., Valle, N., Siebentritt, S., IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 1 (2) , art. no. 6046090 , pp. 200-206

Controlled electrodeposition of Cu-Ga from a deep eutectic solvent for low cost fabrication of CuGaSe2 thin film solar cells, Steichen, M; Thomassey, M; Siebentritt, S; et al., Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics Volume: 13 Issue: 10 Pages: 4292-4302, DOI: 10.1039/c0cp01408g

Effects of different needles and substrates on CuInS2 deposited by electrostatic spray deposition, Roncallo, S; Painter, JD; Healy, MJF; et al., Thin Solid Films Volume: 519 Issue: 11 Pages: 3544-3551, DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.01.248

In-depth resolved Raman scattering analysis for the identification of secondary phases: Characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 layers for solar cell applications, Fontane, X; Calvo-Barrio, L; Izquierdo-Roca, V; et al., Applied Physics Letters Volume: 98 Issue: 18, DOI: 10.1063/1.3587614

Preparation of CuGaSe(2) absorber layers for thin film solar cells by annealing of efficiently electrodeposited Cu-Ga precursor layers from ionic liquids, Steichen, M.; Larsen, J.; Gutay, L.; et al., Thin Solid Films Volume: 519 Issue: 21 Pages: 7254-7258, DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.01.135

Synthesis of trigonal selenium nanorods by electrodeposition from an ionic liquid at high temperature, Steichen, Marc; Dale, Phillip, Electrochemistry Communications Volume: 13 Issue: 8 Pages: 865-868, DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2011.05.023

The Consequences of Kesterite Equilibria for Efficient Solar Cells, Redinger, A; Berg, DM; Dale, PJ; et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society Volume: 133 Issue: 10 Pages: 3320-3323, DOI: 10.1021/ja111713g


Pulsed laser processing of electrodeposited CuInSe 2 photovoltaic absorber thin films,Bhatia, A., Dale, P.J., Nowell, M.M., Scarpulla, M.A., Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 1268 , pp. 103-108

Synthesis and characterization of CuInSe 2 thin films by annealing of lectrodeposited In2Se3/Cu and In2Se3/CuxSey stacks, Fischer, J., Siebentritt, S., Dale, P.J., ECS Transactions 25 (15) , pp. 129-142

A 3.2% efficient Kesterite device from electrodeposited stacked elemental layers, Scragg, J. J.; Berg, D. M.; Dale, P. J., Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry Volume: 646 Issue: 1-2 Pages: 52-59, DOI: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2010.01.008

CuInSe2 precursor films electro-deposited directly onto MoSe2, Cummings, C. Y.; Zoppi, G.; Forbes, I.; et al., Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry Volume: 645 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-21, DOI: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2010.03.031


Towards sustainable photovoltaic solar energy conversion: Studies of new absorber materials, Dale, P.J., Løken, A., Peter, L.M., Scragg, J.J., ECS Transactions 19 (3) , pp. 179-187

A REVIEW OF THE CHALLENGES FACING KESTERITE BASED THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS, Dale, P. J.; Hoenes, K.; Scragg, J.; et al., 2009 34th Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Vols 1-3 Pages: 1956-1961

Cu2ZnSnSe4 in Film Solar Cells Produced by Selenisation of Magnetron Sputtered Precursors, ZOPPI, G; FORBES, I; MILES, RW; et al., PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS Volume: 17 Issue: 5 Pages: 315-319, DOI: 10.1002/pip.886

Kesterite absorber layer uniformity from electrodeposited pre-cursors, KURIHARA, M; BERG, D; FISCHER, J; et al., PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI C - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, VOL 6, NO 5 Volume: 6 Issue: 5 Pages: 1241-1244

Synthesis and characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber layers by an electrodeposition-annealing route, SCRAGG, JJ; DALE, PJ; PETER, LM, Conference: Symposium on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials held at the EMRS 2008 Spring Conference Volume: 517 Pages: 2481-2484, DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.11.022


Characterization of CuInSe2 material and devices: comparison of thermal and electrochemically prepared absorber layers, DALE, PJ; SAMANTILLEKE, AP; ZOPPI, G; et al., JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS Volume: 41 Issue: 8, DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/41/8/085105

New routes to sustainable photovoltaics: evaluation of Cu2ZnSnS4 as an alternative absorber material, SCRAGG, JJ; DALE, PJ; PETER, LM; et al., PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS Volume: 245 Issue: 9 Pages: 1772-1778, DOI: 10.1002/pssb.200879539

Towards sustainable materials for solar energy conversion: Preparation and photoelectrochemical characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4, SCRAGG, JJ; DALE, PJ; PETER, LM, ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 639-642, DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2008.02.008


Deposition and characterization of copper chalcopyrite based solar cells using electrochemical techniques, Dale, P.J., Samantilleke, A.P., Zoppi, G., Forbes, I., Roncallo, S., Peter, L.M., ECS Transactions 6 (2) , pp. 535-546

Deposition of antimony sulfide thin films from single-source antimony thiolate precursors, RODRIGUEZ-CASTRO, J; DALE, P; MAHON, MF; et al., CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Volume: 19 Issue: 13 Pages: 3219-3226, DOI: 10.1021/cm070405j

Electrodeposition of chalcopyrite films from ionic liquid electrolytes, SHIVAGAN, DD; DALE, PJ; SAMANTILLEKE, AP; et al., Conference: Symposium on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials Held at the EMRS 2006 Spring Conference Volume: 515 Pages: 5899-5903, DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2006.12.092

Synthesis of cadmium and zinc semiconductor compounds from an ionic liquid containing choline chloride and urea, DALE, PJ; SAMANTILLEKE, AP; SHIVAGAN, DD; et al., Conference: Symposium on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials Held at the EMRS 2006 Spring Conference Volume: 515 Pages: 5751-5754, DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2006.12.072


Single step solution deposition of multilayer solar absorber films at ambient temperature, ZHOU, L; GOVENDER, K; BOYLE, DS; et al., JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY Volume: 16 Issue: 31 Pages: 3174-3176, DOI: 10.1039/b608182g

The temperature stability of single and mixed emulsions stabilized by nonionic surfactants, DALE, PJ; KIJLSTRA, J; VINCENT, B, COLLOIDS AND SURFACES A-PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING ASPECTS Volume: 291 Issue: 1-3 Pages: 85-92, DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.06.016


Adsorption of non-ionic surfactants on hydrophobic silica particles and the stability of the corresponding aqueous dispersions, DALE, PJ; KIJLSTRA, J; VINCENT, B, LANGMUIR Volume: 21 Issue: 26 Pages: 12250-12256, DOI: 10.1021/la052141q

Small-angle neutron scattering studies of an adsorbed non-ionic surfactant (C12E24) on hydrophobised silica particles in water, DALE, PJ; VINCENT, B; COSGROVE, T; et al., LANGMUIR Volume: 21 Issue: 26 Pages: 12244-12249, DOI: 10.1021/la052140y