"Inequality and...?" Lectures

The purpose of the "Inequality and ...?" lecture series is to provide a forum where the research community, the private and public sectors and the general public in Luxembourg can gather around a theme which researchers have traditionally associated with this country, namely, income studies in a broad sense. The Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) was created in 1983. LIS has become the leading cross-sectional database of micro-economic income data for social science research. Today it benefits from a worldwide reputation.

The unifying thread of the lectures is the concept of inequality, that is, differences in the distribution of some attributes, such as income and wealth, among the population. Each lecture tackles the links between these differences and a central social phenomenon. Each lecture is a source of inspiration for an audience with different levels of expertise, ranging from a general educational level through BAs in social sciences to accomplished researchers.

The PEARL team has established the lecture series in collaboration with the Chambre des Salariés, CREA, the European Investment Bank Institute (EIB Institute), the Fonds National de la Recherche (FNR)LIS, LISER and STATEC.

Inequality and Genes

Markus Jäntti, Stockholm University

at the European Investment Bank

on 01 February 2018 at 13.00



Inequality in economic outcomes partly reflects genetic variation: there is considerable evidence that economic varies across both time and space, suggesting that other forces are also at play. This leads to more complex models of family assocations in economic outcomes. The policy implications of different views of the relationship between economic inequality and genes are discussed. While doubt can be cast on the view that inequality is mostly genetic, the implications for, e.g., policies to reduce inequality are widely misunderstood.

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Upcoming: Inequality and ...?

Inequality and Surnames

Gregory Clark, University of California, Davies

08 March 2018



Inequality and European Identity

Frank Cowell, London School of Economics

28 March 2018



Inequality and the PIBien-être

Serge Allegrezza, STATEC

17 April 2018



Inequality, Human Capital and Marital Patterns

Pierre-André Chiappori, Columbia University

29 May 2018



Our Past Lectures (in reverse chronological order since 2013) 


Inequality and Luxembourg

Nicolas Schmit, Gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, Ministère du Travail, de l’Emploi et de l’Économie sociale et solidaire
09 January 2018

This lecture analyzes inequality in one of the wealthiest countries worldwide. Traditionally, Luxembourg has been a relatively equal society but new economic developments are changing this.

What does the new digital economy mean in this respect? Is there polarization in the labour market? Is growing inequality a result of prices in the housing market?

What active public policies could be employed to reduce inequalities?




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Inequality and Technology

Omar Arias , The World Bank
06 December 2017

There is consistent evidence that technology, particularly automation, is affecting the skill content of jobs and driving inequality in labor markets of developed economies. How does the skill content of jobs change as countries develop?

Is automation also generating polarization in labor markets of developing countries? Recent analysis using labor force surveys, as reported in the World Development Report 2016, suggests that similar processes of labor market polarization are emerging in some developing countries. The trends depend on whether the evolution of shares or absolute levels of employment in middle-wage, middle-skill jobs are examined.

This lecture will discuss this evidence, its possible drivers, what could be expected in the future as new technologies continue to evolve and become cheaper, and draw implications for skills building and other social policies.




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Inequality and The Better Life Initiative

Martine Durand, OECD
15 November 2017

What makes for a good life? While the richness of human experience cannot be captured in numbers alone, it is important that the statistics shaping public policy reflect both people’s material living conditions, and the quality of their lives.

One of the strengths of the Better Life Initiative is in providing a diverse range of internationally comparable statistics on well-being – from health and wealth, to jobs and housing, safety and civic engagement.  Yet national averages disguise a great deal of variation in people’s experiences within OECD countries – and it is important to understand how life is going for people, not just on average, but across all groups in society.

Indeed, inequality is an important feature shaping the well-being of societies, including disparities associated with age, gender, education and income. The 2017 edition of the OECD report How’s Life? highlights the many facets of inequality, showing that gaps in people’s achievements and opportunities extend right across the different dimensions of well-being.




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Inequality and Economic History

Guido Alfani, Bocconi University
12 October 2017

Recent research in economic history has unearthed previously unknown facts about the long-term trends in inequality. We now have, for at least some areas of Europe, time series of key inequality indicators from ca. 1300.

These new data are changing the way in which we perceive economic inequality not only in the past, but even today – as a key lesson from history, is that economic inequality (especially, but not only, of wealth) has a marked tendency for increasing over time, and only catastrophes on the scale of the Black Death or the World Wars managed to bring it down, albeit temporarily.

This lecture will provide an overview of these recent acquisitions, and will debate why they are relevant for current debates.




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Inequality and Economic History (Interview)


Inequality and Economic History (Presentation)


Read the Inequality and Economic History slides of the lecture.





Inequality and Trade Unions

Ronald Janssen, Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD
10 July 2017

International economic institutions such as the OECD and the IMF are increasingly paying attention to the problem of high and rising inequalities and its causes and consequences. It is however not so obvious whether the policy solutions these institutions are recommending are adequate and comprehensive.

In the analysis carried out in this lecture, particular attention will be paid to the role of labour markets institutions such as collective bargaining and other mechanisms of wage formation. In addition, recent developments that focus on the role and the causes of falling labour shares are discussed.








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Inequality and Macroeconomics

Benjamin Moll, Princeton University
17 May 2017

Does the existence of inequality change how we should think about macroeconomic policies? Are recessions more severe in more unequal countries?

Traditionally, macroeconomics had no role for inequality. But better data and more powerful computing methods mean that we are now able to study the rich interactions between inequality and the macroeconomy that characterize our world. On the one hand, inequality shapes macroeconomic aggregates; on the other hand, macroeconomic shocks and policies also affect inequality.

Incorporating the enormous heterogeneity observed at the micro level, and in particular the large disparities in income and wealth, often delivers strikingly different implications for monetary and fiscal policies and allows us to study their distributional implications.









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Inequality and Macroeconomics (Introduction)


Inequality and Macroeconomics (Presentation)


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Inequality and the Rentiers

Philippe Askenazy, CNRS
02 May 2017

Why do conservative governments, from the UK to Japan, accept and even promote the creation of or the increase in the minimum wage? Why is a large share of the workforce considered as low-productivity while their competencies are improving and their work is intensifying?Why are profits still growing in the wake of economic liberalization?

This lecture proposes a personal global answer to such puzzling questions. Various determinants of rent-sharing in modern capitalism are disentangled. I stress two mechanisms: the triumph of proprietarism and the misleading naturalization of labor earning and productivity inequality.









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Inequality and the Rentiers (Introduction)


Inequality and the Rentiers (Presentation)


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Inequality and Personal Responsibility

Francisco Ferreira, The World Bank
27 April 2017

Are all forms of inequality equally bad?  Modern views of social justice suggest that one should distinguish between income differences that result from the exercise of personal responsibility or effort, and those that arise from differences in circumstances beyond the control of individuals, such as race, gender, family background or country of birth.

These views have shaped a vibrant literature on the definition and measurement of inequality of opportunity

This lecture will review both the theory and the empirics of measuring inequality of opportunity, and explore implications  for intergenerational mobility, poverty, and our very notion of development policy objectives.







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Inequality and Personal Responsibility (Introduction)


Inequality and Personal Responsibility (Presentation)


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Inequality and Climate Change

Stephan Klasen, University of Göttingen
29 March 2017

Equity issues are central to policy debates about climate change. But what is the role of inequality between and within nations on carbon emissions?

The first part of the talk reviews recent findings on this issue. The second part of the talk examines barriers to first-best climate policy.

Economics has offered clear and convincing first-best solutions to the problem of climate change, but they do not play a central role in the setting of climate policy. Drawing on insights from the IPCC’s fifth assessment report, the talk argues that, for political economy reasons, there is little chance of enacting the economists’ first-best solution.

The talk then discusses what this means for global and European climate policy, including the Paris Agreement.







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Inequality and Climate Change (Intoduction)


Inequality and Climate Change (Presentation)


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Inequality and Child Development

Ariel Kalil, University of Chicago
23 February 2017

Children face very different chances of getting ahead in life depending on the circumstances of their birth. Parenting and its role in the diverging destinies of rich and poor children are discussed in this lecture.

Inequality begins at home. It develops from the differences in the ways advantaged and disadvantaged parents interact with their children. Traditional policy interventions fail to attack the root cause of achievement gaps. To equalize the playing field, governments may need to invest in parents so parents can better invest in their children. Unfortunately, large-scale interventions typically yield modest effect sizes at best and often do not even change children’s skills in the long term.

Understanding what motivates parents to invest in their children could have a major impact on the design of policies to reduce inequality in children’s skill development.






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Inequality and Child Development (Intoduction)


Inequality and Child Development (Presentation)


Read the Inequality and Child Development slides of the lecture.






Inequality and Inequity

François Bourguignon, Paris School of Economics
18 January 2017

In economics, inequality is most often defined by how unequal the resources that people can live on are. In contrast, inequity refers to the fact that people are not being offered the same possibilities of generating those resources, even though they might all expend the same efforts. The former type of inequality is often called ‘inequality of outcomes’ whereas the latter corresponds to ‘inequality of opportunity’. This lecture will focus on the crucial distinction between these two concepts of inequality, showing that measuring them calls for different methods. In addition, correcting them may not conform to the same social objectives or have the same impact on the functioning of the economy. The two approaches may not rely on the same policy instruments. At the same time, however, the two concepts are complementary in several respects.






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Inequality and Inequity (Intoduction)


Inequality and Inequity (Presentation)


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Inequality and GDP

Robert Inklaar, University of Groningen
20 December 2016

Cross-country inequality in GDP per capita depends crucially on measures of cross-country relative prices: the purchasing power parities (PPPs). Yet new information on PPPs tends to spark furious debate, as relative income rankings get shuffled and international income differences are compressed or widened.

This lecture will discuss some of the measurement challenges that can lead to these surprises, and how best to deal with the ensuing uncertainty. The consequences of these measurement challenges will be discussed in the context of current debates about global inequality and poverty, and in a historical perspective regarding the long-run shape of cross-country income inequality.







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Inequality and GDP (Introduction)


Inequality and GDP (Presentation)


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Inequality and Fairness

Bertil Tungodden, Norwegian School of Economics
23 November 2016

In this talk, I will survey recent evidence on how fairness concerns motivate distributive behavior, in particular the moral idea of personal responsibility. I will also present recent results of a comparison of the fairness preferences in the United States and Scandinavia.

There is a striking difference in income inequality and redistributive policies between the United States and Scandinavia. To study whether there is a corresponding cross-country difference in social preferences, we conducted the first large-scale international social preference experiment, with nationally representative samples from the United States and Norway.

We show that Americans and Norwegians differ significantly in fairness views, but not in the importance assigned to efficiency. The study also provides robust causal evidence of fairness considerations being much more fundamental for inequality acceptance than efficiency considerations in both countries.




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Inequality and Fairness (Introduction)


Inequality and Fairness (Presentation)


Read the Inequality and Fairness slides of the lecture.



Inequality and the Great Gatsby Curve

Miles Corak, University of Ottawa
21 June 2016

We should care about inequality because it has the potential to shape opportunities for the next generation.

This presentation offers a framework for thinking about this relationship, and for understanding why the adult outcomes of children are more closely tied to their family background—with the poor raising the next generation of poor adults, and the rich more likely to see their children to be rich in adulthood—in countries with greater inequality.

Differences in families, labour markets, and public policy all play a role in understanding why the United States has relatively less social mobility than many other countries.




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Inequality and the Great Gatsby Curve (Introduction)


Inequality and the Great Gatsby Curve (Presentation)


Read the Inequality and the Great Gatsby Curve slides of the lecture.



Inequality and Impact Investments

Yaron Neudorfer, Social Finance Israel
31 May 2016

Inequality in society often leaves parts of the population underserved and with no good access to social services. The gap only grows over time, as governments don’t have enough money to resolve these social issues, and philanthropy is limited and not always sustainable.

New resources are needed to be able to fund the best and most effective social interventions in order to deal with the most pressing problems of our societies. Impact investment in general, and social impact bonds specifically create the mechanisms that are able to bring new investors’ money into social issues.

This lecture will introduce new concepts in funding social issues and moving from treatment to prevention.




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Inequality and Impact Investments (Introduction)


Inequality and Impact Investments (Presentation)


Read the Inequality and Impact Investments slides of the lecture.



Inequality and Inflation

Bart Hobijn, Arizona State University 
12 May 2016

Households differ in the goods and services they buy and in the composition of their investment portfolios. These two differences result in inequality in both their inflation experiences as well as in their exposure to inflation risks.

How large are differences in inflation experiences across different types of households and in the extent to which households are exposed to inflation risk? The answer to this question matters for many policy decisions. For example, it affects the choice of appropriate indexation of benefits and salaries, the quantification of changes in the inequality in standards of living, as well as the assessment of the effects of monetary and fiscal policy measures.

This talk reviews the literature that has aimed to answer this question for the USA and provides new evidence for EU countries.



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Inequality and Inflation (Introduction)


Inequality and Inflation (Presentation)


Read the Inequality and Inflation slides of the lecture.



Inequality and Inheritances

Edward Wolff, New York University 
14 April 2016

Have inheritances become more important over time in the U.S.? There is reason to think that the share of wealth transfers has been rising as the current generation of elderly is now the richest in U.S. history.Moreover, the baby-boom generation has now reached the prime inheritance age group of 50-59 and may be the first generation to inherit a considerable amount of money. However, there is little evidence of an inheritance “boom”.

How much, if at all, do inheritances contribute to overall wealth inequality? Though inheritances received are much larger for richer than poorer families, inheritances, as a share of current wealth, tend to be higher for poorer families and thus tend to reduce overall wealth inequality.

This lecture will explore these and other issues based on the U.S. Federal Reserve Board’s Survey of Consumer Finances.




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Inequality and Inheritances (Introduction)


Inequality and Inheritances (Presentation)


Read the Inequality and Inheritances slides of the lecture.



Inequality and Housing Exclusion

Marc Uhry, Fondation Abbé Pierre
15 March 2016

In many countries that experience population growth, the coexistence of communities is threatened by housing shortages. The concentration of economic activity in a few big cities leads to multitudes of families seeking employment in these economic centers, thus generating speculative housing bubbles. In contrast, housing markets collapse in many shrinking cities.

The inequalities that follow in the wake of such housing crises create disturbances with dramatic social consequences and can upset the economy on a worldwide scale. At the same time, housing is the chief lever by which the economy can recover in a peaceful way. Citizens can directly experience improvement and new challenges such as environmental protection, circular economies, restructured social interaction and the creation of `smart’ cities can be met.

This lecture will address the above issues with a focus on the European Union.



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Inequality and Housing Exclusion (Introduction)


Inequality and Housing Exclusion (Presentation)


Read the Inequality and Housing Exclusion slides of the lecture.



Inequality and Child Poverty

Martin Evans, UNICEF
1 March 2016

Child poverty is now a high priority in the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Poverty reduction will have to be monitored using international and national monetary poverty measures and also in ‘multi-dimensional’ terms.

This lecture outlines the current state of play in global child poverty profiles and considers options for improving child poverty measurement. Empirical evidence will consider international and national profiles of child poverty and discussion will consider issues that are common to both poverty and inequality measurement for future SDG monitoring. 





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Inequality and Child Poverty (Introduction)


Inequality and Child Poverty (Presentation)


Read the Inequality and Child Poverty slides of the lecture.



Inequality and the Super Rich

Daniel Waldenström, Uppsala University
4 February 2016

Over the recent decades there has been a dramatic rise in top income shares in most Western countries.

Several explanations have been proposed, some pointing at the role of market-driven forces such as technology and globalization whereas others emphasize the importance of political and economic institutions of taxation or changing social norms about income differences in society.

This lecture presents the latest academic research about the evolution of top income and wealth positions around the Western world, what we know about the central determinants and how economic policy contribute to shaping these outcomes.




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Inequality and the Super Rich (Introduction)


Inequality and the Super Rich (Presentation)


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Inequality and Opportunities Beyond High-School

Jamil Salmi, Global Tertiary Education Expert, former Tertiary Education Coordinator, World Bank
20 January 2016

All over the world, education has undeniably become the main force of inclusion in society.

Yet, much progress remains to be made, especially at the tertiary education level. In spite of the extensive efforts to improve access worldwide, tertiary education—especially the university sector—generally remains elitist, with the majority of enrolled students coming from wealthier segments of society.

Against this background, this lecture proposes to summarize available evidence on the main forms and the scope of disparities in tertiary education, present the principal determinants of inequality at the tertiary education level, and outline promising approaches and measures for offering more equal opportunities to all disadvantaged groups.





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Inequality and Opportunities Beyond High-School (Introduction)


Inequality and Opportunities Beyond High-School (Presentation)


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Inequality and Gender Occupational Outcomes

Ronald L. Oaxaca, University of Arizona
24 June 2015

Equality of opportunity is a popular goal that a broad spectrum of political opinion is united on. Equality of outcomes as an objective of public policy is more divisive.

I would argue that social concern over gender inequality in occupational outcomes is driven mainly by the very close association between occupational inequality and income inequality. If women were under-represented in low paying occupations lacking promotional opportunities, it is doubtful that gender occupational inequality would be a significant social issue (at least not for women).

This lecture will explore the association between job titles and wages, job mobility in the workplace, and how to sort out how much of the gender wage gap can be attributed to job segregation in the workplace.

Evidence will come from studies of actual firms as well as laboratory experiments.




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Ronald L. Oaxaca, University of Arizona (introduction)



Ronald L. Oaxaca, University of Arizona (presentation)


Read the Inequality and Gender Occupational Outcomes slides of the lecture.



Inequality and Globalization

Jacques Silber, Bar-Ilan University
20 May 2015

What type of inequality should we take a look at when analyzing world inequality and how did inequality vary over time? Does globalization refer to the international convergence of prices or real wages, to the increase in the volume of trade, the decline in transportation costs and trade restrictions or to the rise in information flows (social globalization)?

What was the impact on inequality of technological change and institutional factors, such as the decline in the union coverage, in centralized collective bargaining and labor market regulations?

Empirical evidence will be presented on these various issues, in particular on the impact of globalization on inequality.



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Jacques Silber, Bar-Ilan University (introducion)


Jacques Silber, Bar-Ilan University (presentation)


Read the Inequality and Globalization slides of the lecture.



Inequality and Non-Standard Work 

Ana Llena-Nozal , OECD
21 April 2015

This lecture discusses the implications of developments in the labour market in terms of non-standard work on individual earnings and household income inequality.

It documents how non-standard work affects the distribution of jobs and wages and discusses whether non-standard jobs are stepping-stones or not.

The presentation also shows that non-standard workers living alone or with other non-standard workers suffer from higher chances of low income and poverty. In addition, it examines work incentive and adequacy effects of tax and benefit rules.





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Inequality and Non-Standard Work - Dr. Ana Llena-Nozal (Introduction)


Inequality and Non-Standard Work - Dr. Ana Llena-Nozal (Presentation)


Read the Inequality and Non-Standard Work slides of the lecture.



Inequality and Health

Frederick Zimmerman, University of California, Los Angeles
25 March 2015

How much inequality is too much? A philosophical answer is provided in Rawls’ dictum that only as much inequality can be tolerated as improves the lot of the least well-off.

Using health and well-being to concretize Rawls’ criterion, this presentation offers evidence suggesting that reducing inequality would result in meaningful improvements to population health and well-being.

Data are presented on the relationships between inequality and health in several domains, and causal mechanisms operating at various levels are discussed. This evidence collectively suggests that levels of economic inequality have reached levels that are ethically indefensible in many countries.






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Inequality and Health - Prof. Frederick J. Zimmerman (Intro)


Inequality and Health - Prof. Frederick J. Zimmerman (Presentation)


Read the of the Inequality and Health slides of the lecture.



Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility

Tim Smeeding, University of Wisconsin and OECD
26 February 2015


This lecture considers what we know about the methods by which the intergeneration transmission of advantage and disadvantage work their way through the lifecycle; it shows how inequality affects mobility; it offers a perspective on when and how public policy can intervene to alter the time path of child development from birth through adulthood.


The steps in the life course are illustrated with cross-national examples of parent–child gradients in multiple child outcome domains.





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… Intergenerational Mobility in a nutshell


Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility


Read the Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility slides of the lecture.




Inequality and Beyond GDP

Enrico Giovannini, University of Rome "Tor Vergata"
8 January 2015


A great deal of work over the last ten years has been carried out to measure the progress of our societies going “Beyond GDP”. New indicators have been developed, as well as initiatives to better integrate economic, social and environmental policies.


In the meantime, income inequality has grown in both developed and developing countries.


The lecture will discuss possible frameworks to measure equitable and sustainable well-being and opportunities to develop policies to reduce inequality in European countries.




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…Beyond GDP in a nutshell


Inequality and Beyond GDP


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Inequality and Financial Literacy

Annamaria Lusardi, George Washington University
10 November 2014


Shifting economic policies and changes in the pension and economic landscape have forced individuals around the world to assume greater responsibility for their own financial well-being. But how prepared are individuals to take on this greater responsibility and to process the economic information needed to make informed decisions about their current and future finances?


Evidence using data collected across many countries shows that the level of financial literacy is very low, even in countries with well-developed financial markets. Financial illiteracy is not only widespread but is particularly acute among some demographic groups, such as young people and women.


Moreover, financial literacy can be linked to borrowing and saving behavior. It is also an important determinant of wealth inequality; according to the predictions of an intertemporal model of saving, from 30 to 40% of wealth inequality can be accounted for by financial literacy.




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Inequality and Financial Literacy


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Inequality and Growth

Jean Marc Fournier, Economist at OECD
14 October 2014


Income inequality has widened in most OECD countries during the past decades, reflecting to a large extent skill-biased technological change. Inequality is a concern as the relevant target is not GDP growth per se but rather the well-being of people.


Furthermore, a recent OECD analysis suggests that higher inequality can reduce GDP per capita. The OECD has thus investigated the impact of growth-friendly structural reforms on inequality.


Some growth-friendly policies could increase inequality, such as tightening unemployment benefits for the long-term unemployed. By contrast, several growth-enhancing reforms contributed to narrower inequality by delivering stronger market income gains for the poorest, such as raising secondary education rates, stepping up job-search support and activation programmes, or policies aiming at reducing the share of temporary contracts. Last, some reforms can lift all boats, such as increasing the overall level of education.




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Inequality and Growth


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Inequality and Diversity

Shlomo Weber, Southern Methodist University and Center for Study of Diversity and Social Interactions, New Economic School
4 June 2014


The bulk of economic research on the issue of diversity has been centered on the role of economic and wealth inequality in the global economy. However, one cannot deny the impact of linguistic diversity on economic and political development, as well as on public policies.


In spite of the claim that “globalization proceeds in English”, linguistic diversity is a global social phenomenon. On one hand, there are financial costs, communication barriers, divisions in national unity, and, in some extreme cases, conflicts and war, associated with linguistic diversity, on the other hand, there is a growing support for protection of group and an individual identity.


In our lecture we will argue that denial or restriction of linguistic rights of various population groups, or so-called linguistic disenfranchisement, could be detrimental for economic growth, political and social development.




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Inequality and Diversity


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Inequality and Education

Daniele Checchi, University of Milan
21 May 2014


Inequality in education concerns not only school attendance, but also what you may achieve in terms of competences. It represents a potential cause of inequality in earnings, since it drives people in or out of the labour market.


Policies favouring school inclusion seem effective in reducing educational inequality. These policies may take the form of either increases in years of education or increases in abilities. Years of education partially compensate for a possible lack of cultural resources due to family background, while abilities favour labour market participation and earnings potential.


This lecture will address these issues from a theoretical and empirical perspective.




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Inequality and Education


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Inequality and Poverty

Stephen Jenkins, London School of Economics
26 March 2014


The income distribution is most commonly assessed in terms of how much inequality or poverty there is in a given year or by how much inequality and poverty have changed over time.


This lecture makes a case for also drawing on information about income mobility – the links between people’s incomes in one year and the next and between parental and offspring income. The questions addressed include:

  • Why does mobility matter?
  • How much mobility and poverty persistence is there?
  • To what extent is there a trade-off between greater income inequality and poverty and greater mobility?

Empirical illustrations draw on data for Europe and North America.




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Inequality and Poverty


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Inequality and Gender

Janet Gornick, LIS & City University of New York
16 January 2014


Inequality among men and women is still a reality.


What is the role of the European Union in establishing work-family reconciliation policies in Europe? How do these policy provisions vary across high-income countries? What do we know about the effects – both intended and unintended – of reconciliation policies? What explains the comparatively low level of provision in the English-speaking countries, especially in the United States?




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Inequality and Gender


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Inequality and Conflict

Joan Maria Esteban, Institut d'Anàlisi Economicà & Barcelona GSE
28 November 2013


Over the second half of the 20th century, conflicts within national boundaries became increasingly dominant. One-third of all countries experienced civil conflict.


There are two remarkable facts about social conflict that deserve notice: first, within-country conflicts account for an enormous share of deaths and hardship in the world today, and second, internal conflicts often appear to be ethnic in nature.


Which factors influence social conflict? Do ethnic divisions predict conflict within countries? How do we conceptualize those divisions? If it is indeed true that ethnic cleavages and conflicts are related, how do we interpret such a result? Is ethnicity instrumental to achieve political power or economic gain?




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Inequality and Conflict


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